Plug-in Light Duty/Heavy Duty Vehicles and Buses

There has been a marked transition towards cleaner and more efficient technologies in transportation, particularly in the commercial fleet sector. Among the emerging solutions, PHEHD trucks stand out due to their potential in reducing GHG emissions and contributing to sustainable practices. Innovations in battery technology, electric drivetrains, and energy management systems have led to significant improvements in these vehicles.

Technological Advancements

Battery technology remains at the forefront of PHEHD trucks' advancements. Breakthroughs in lithium-ion battery technology have dramatically improved energy density, reduced costs, and enhanced charge-discharge efficiency. Other advancements include energy management systems with machine learning algorithms that optimize energy usage based on factors like road grade, load, and ambient conditions.

GHG Emissions and GGE Quantification

The average conventional heavy-duty truck emits around 22.38 pounds of CO2 per gallon of diesel consumed. When compared to a PHEHD truck, the potential for GHG reduction is considerable. A PHEHD truck has a diversified power source, using both an internal combustion engine (which can be optimized for efficiency) and an electric motor. Assuming an average efficiency of 4 miles per diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) for conventional trucks, and considering the current technology of PHEHD trucks, a typical PHEHD truck can achieve 8 miles per DGE, effectively reducing GHG emissions by approximately 50%.

Economic, Environmental, and Social Costs

The total cost of ownership (TCO) of PHEHD trucks, although initially high due to upfront costs, is decreasing as battery prices continue to fall and efficiency continues to rise. From an environmental perspective, the reduced GHG emissions contribute to climate change mitigation efforts. On the social front, noise pollution reduction and cleaner air contribute positively to urban life quality. However, challenges still remain, particularly regarding the recycling and disposal of used batteries and the readiness of charging infrastructure.


PHEHD trucks significantly contribute to sustainability, particularly in three areas: economic development, environmental protection, and social equity. Economically, the potential fuel savings can lower operational costs, leading to economic viability in the long run. From an environmental standpoint, reductions in GHG emissions can play a critical role in achieving sustainability goals. Socially, PHEHD trucks help reduce noise and air pollution, improving the quality of life in densely populated areas.

Forecasting the Production of PHEHD Trucks

As of 2023, there are approximately 15,000 PHEHD trucks in operation in the United States, with a global count of around 70,000. With various factors such as governmental regulations, technological advancements, and increasing awareness of climate change, we predict a substantial increase in the production volume.

In the United States, production could reach 30,000 units annually by 2030, driven by stricter emission regulations and incentives for cleaner vehicles. Globally, annual production could exceed 200,000 units by 2030, largely due to China's aggressive policies in promoting electric vehicles and Europe's stringent emission standards.


While there are challenges to overcome, the advancements in PHEHD trucks present an opportunity to make significant strides towards a more sustainable future. With continuous innovation, supportive regulations, and an increasing emphasis on sustainable practices, PHEHD trucks could see growth in the commercial fleet sector, dramatically reducing GHG emissions and other associated costs. The future looks promising for PHEHD trucks as they continue to evolve, leading the charge towards cleaner and more efficient commercial transportation.